Category: General (Page 1 of 2)


Veda in Sanskrit means the science of knowledge. It has other names such as Shruti, Agama, Amnaya etc. The contents are very huge and it was initially divided into four divisions for the convenience of teaching and learning, with the names as Rigveda, Atharvaveda, Samaveda  and Yajurveda. In due course of time, each division were further classified as main branches and auxiliaries or Vedashakhas and Upa-Vedas, dealing with different specialized subjects.

Bharadvaja Ashrama was like a University in olden days. Gauthama Ashrama was another such example. The classification of a particular Veda has no particular date and time. Sushruta was the son of Vishwamitra Rishi. He had written books on medicines. One Rishi with the formal name as Bharata had composed verses on Natya shastras. Chanakya had composed books on Arthashastra. Maya had contributed to archeology and artilleries. All are in Sanskrit. These developments were concluded as the basics for job oriented courses.

Representive image for Upaveda
Representive image for Upaveda

Gradually, the four branches of Vedas were learnt by the students separately according to their aptitudes, further evolving into ten clear branches. Surgery and medicines were studied by the students of Rigveda having the branch name as Shakhala Shakha and those verses pertaining to their aptitudes were termed as Ayurveda and later, that auxiliary branch continued as Upaveda of Rigveda. Thus medical field got the name evolved as Ayurveda. Rigveda had only one branch, so one wing Ayurveda is the one assumed Upaveda, continuing even now .

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Japa Yajna

Japa means chanting divine name of God or repeatedly reciting the same powerful mantras. There are several compound words such as Japayoga, Japa sadhana, Japayajna etc. This is most commonly known as Japayajna or simply Japa. Japayajna is sometimes done without any purpose or without desire also. But Japayajna is usually done to achieve a desired result within a least time.

Rudraksha Japa Mala or prayer beads
Rudraksha Japa Mala or prayer beads

Earning money may be a difficult project work but earning virtue through Japayajna is an easier project than it. It can be practiced individually, within family members or within a group of people together. A garland with 54 (fifty four) beads or 108 (one hundred and eight) beads to keep the counts of repetitions is helpful for the Japa practitioner of Sanatana follower. There are also people, using 100 beads, 33×3+1 chanting for thrice a day.  The words Japa or Tapa are colloquial phrases but Tapa is not as easy as Japa since Tapa is penance and not recommended for all.

यज्नानां जपयज्नो ऽस्मि

Meaning of Yajnanam japa yajno asmi: God Krishna had explained his various forms of recognized, special exhibitions or proof of divine perceivable existences. Among the several visible forms, sacrifices or rituals are considered as causes for virtues. Japa, the God’s name chanting or mantra reciting system is the best or divine form, most pleased by God. This narration is available in the twenty fifth verse of the tenth chapter of the Bhagavad Geetha. It is available in Mahabharata. Vyasa Rishi had written it in Sanskrit, for the guidance of all desiring welfare, and recommendable for all, without any restrictions.  

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Mimamsa Science: Unveiling the Ancient Indian Philosophy and its Relevance in Modern Life

What is Mimamsa?

Mimamsa is the Indian branch of philosophy considered to be founded by Jaimini Rishi, but Mimamsa science was there even before the period of Jaimini. It has two parts, the initial part of Vedas, known as Karma Kanda or Purva Mimamsa and the later part of Vedas, known as Brahma Kanda or Uttara Mimamsa.

Since the Uttara Mimamsa deals only with the items of debates about soul of the human life, it is still under public usages and practices. The Purva Mimamsa requires high grade knowledge of Vedas so it is less popular but more practical in Vedic life and in Indian astrological remedies, it is openly and frequently used as Parihara Karmas.    

Who wrote Markandeya Purana? 

Vyasa Maharshi had written Markandeya Purana. But Vyasa got the story and principles of Goddess Devi from Markandeya Maharshi. More about Mimamsa Science is elaborated in Markandeya Purana.

With the example of birds feeding their young ones, in Markandeya Purana, the divinity of Goddess is explained. The works and results of the living bird are referred as the principles of motherhood as well as hidden secret principles of Mimamsa. Since Vyasa was the teacher of Jaimini, it could be proved as Mimamsa existed prior to Jaimini Rishi.

Represntative image of jaimini Maharshi writing scriptures while sitting under a tree
Represntative image of jaimini Maharshi
Who were the disciples of Vyasa and what were their contributions?

Vedavyasa had four prime disciples and they were Paila, Vaishampayana, Jaimini and Sumanthu. Paila was responsible for Rigveda, Vaishampayana Yajurveda, Jaimini Samaveda and Sumanthu for Atharva veda. In additions to these books, they contributed to Puranas and other philosophical texts called as Dharma shastras.

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Shri Madhvacharya: Exploring The Legacy And Teachings

Who is the Udupi Shankaracharya?

Madhvacharya is the Udupi Shankaracharya. His Holiness Shree Shree Madhvacharya had presented his incarnation from Vayu on the Vijayadashami day in 1238 AD, at Pajaka in Udupi district of Karnataka in India as the first son to Smt. Vedavati and Sri Narayana Bhatta. Since the house of Narayana Batta was in the middle of a colony, he was also famous by his house name, in local Tulu dialect, as Naddanthillaya, which makes a sense of owner of the house in the middle of the colony. His holy life was amalgamated with the lotus feet of Maha Vishnu on 1317 CE.

13th century portrait of the pontiff, Shri Madhvacharya
13th century portrait of Shri Madhvacharya

The initial name of Madhvacharya, prior to bestowing him as the Holy Swamiji of Udupi, was generally referred by the assigned name of Purnaprajna being officially granted by his Guru. During the Purvashrama, his name was Vasudeva but later he was delighted as a holy pontiff of Udupi. The disciples of His Holiness assigned him the honorable name of Madhvacharya. Usually, his family followed Vaishnavite theologies and was following practical and social performances of the school of Shankara philosophy.

The common Indian word for the cultural rituals or the lively routine activities is called the Dharmic Achara or simply as Achara. Acharya means a person like a priest who performs and preaches, along with highlighting ancient and ever-lasting theologies or acharas of Sanathana Dharma, the naturally evolved, scientific social customs. 

What was the specialty of Madhvacharya ?

Until Madhvacharya became a pontiff, his previous traditional teachers were following what the great Indian seer Shankaracharya had renovated.  But gradually, Madhvacharya developed many social outlooks of Sanathana Dharma within the lessons of his own experiences. He felt that, in the later periods, debates would become more prominent and hence rituals should be based on scientific proofs and such plain protective approach that was originally faced by Jagadguru Shankaracharya also.

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Healthy Human Habits From Ramayana

Ayodhya was the capital city of Rama but his education was not yet completed when Vishwamitra Rishi had visited the Palace of Dasharatha. Vishwamitra Rishi was in search of an efficient man, say a prince, who possessed healthy habits. He had collected the data about Rama and selected him as a suitable person for his desired purpose of actions. Rama was not married then. He was always found accompanied by his younger brother Lakshmana. His character, conduct and integrity were beyond doubt and are not a matter to narrate, but his habits would be emphasized here. Habits could be practiced by observing a guide. Healthy human habits would certainly please the surrounding people and create a healthy society that would be able to cause longevity and happiness in life.

Rama, Sita and Lakshmana in the forest practising social distancing
Rama, Sita and Lakshmana in the forest
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Benefits Of Apprenticeship And Internship

Apprenticeship and internship are very old systems that could be seen in Ramayana. The style and words would differ, being in Sanskrit language.

The period of learning the work was called as the apprenticeship. Prior to the actual work, the teacher used to orally tell the verses and the disciple had to by heart them. When the disciple performed the works, the teacher would correct him in case mistakes had been committed. The case of Shunashepa and Vishwamitra could be stated as one of the examples for the apprenticeship in Ramayana.

Gurukula education system
Gurukula system
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Civil Engineering In Ramayana

Rama had lived in Ayodhya during his childhood and as an Emperor later. After receiving his basic education from Vasishta, he had gone to forests with Vishwamitra Rishi for higher education and thereby to get the skill in martial arts. After marriage, for the next fourteen years, he used to live in forests in order to fulfill his father’s words as befitting to the Raghu lineage. Hence, the construction of huts and hermits were necessitated for Rama, to live in the forests areas. Construction works have been taught in Gurukula system and management of projects were personally monitored by administrative aspirant people then and there, in those days.

Also, in those days there was not a separate pedagogical branch, such as now called Civil Engineering. But it was taught in the school of Vishwakarma to the aspirants, clubbed with other applied sciences. The palace of Rama was magnificent in all respects. All facilities as required in the case of a planned city were available in Ayodhya then.

Aerial view of Rama Sethu
Aerial view of Shri Rama Sethu
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Freedom In Ramayana

Rama was the ideal royal administrator of any time on this earth. One day, he expressed to conduct the Ashwamedha Yajna with his brothers, Lakshmana and Bharata, as per the decisions of the council of his advisors. Then, the brothers desired to know the effectiveness of the Ashwamedha yajna and fruitfulness after its completion. Many Rishis had visited Rama and he had acquired great experiences. In order to convince them, a live incident had been narrated by Rama as follows:

Ashwamedha horse running loose
Ashwamedha horse running freely
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Karma: How It Affects Future

Karma means actions or work. The present enjoyments or sufferings are the results of our past doings. The future is in our hands. Time never stops. We are allotted our current day, and each and every moment of today should be well spent so that we enjoy better results in the forthcoming days.  Sometimes we feel failed. Certainly, there would be one or more reasons for the failure. Experience is the best teacher, and talent must be developed on solitude. Character enhances the popularity in the company of like-minded people.  Swami Vivekananda declares, nothing is impossible in this world, hence one could succeed in his endeavor if tried again and again, following the path of Dharma.

Elephant offering lotus to Lord Vishnu
God Vishnu rescuing the elephant on receiving the lotus
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Earth: Reliable And Permanent

Our Earth is permanent, but always rotating around the sun. It is also revolving about its own axis which is inclined, more than twenty three degrees, having a shape of an apple. Technically, the shape is geoid. Three fourth of its mass is water and only one fourth is soil. In Rigveda or Yajurveda, it is explained as the Sun controls our Earth.

Matsya, Kurma and Varaha avatars of Lord Vishnu
Matsya, Kurma and Varaha avatars of Lord Vishnu

In mythology, Earth is worshiped as the wife of God Vishnu. God Shiva is allotted the duty of destruction according to the code of conduct of Indian (our) thought called Dharma. The dancing of Shiva is explained as Pralaya, which means total shuffling of the earth. The protector of earth has scientifically arranged one permanent shed as a safe house at Badari for the use in case of emergency and the creator Brahma used to sit in it, taking classes to his four children, namely, Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumara and Sanatana. That shed is called Narayana Ashram.

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