Dyuta Anudyuta parva is the twenty eighth upa parva included in the second maha parva, named as sabha parva, in the epic, Mahabharata. Various compilations of this epic are numbered differently and this one upa parva may be numbered in a different fashion in them. Vyshampayana had narrated the historical events to Janamejaya, on his queries:

What had been done by Shakuni and Duryodhana after Rajasuya at Indraprastha?

After Rajasuya, Shakunai and Duryodhana at Indraprastha started to enjoy the splendor and beauty of the new Sabha hall of Yudhishtira. 

Dyuta or the game of dice being played between Pandavas and Kauravas in the new Sabha hall
Events during Dyuta (game of dice) at new Sabha hall
What happened to Duryodhana when he moved to the new Sabha hall? 

The Indraprastha Sabha (meeting) hall was unique in nature. It had a crystal laid floor which resembled a water tank in the centre on the passageway and Duryodhana had moved to the front side of Shakuni. He had pulled up his attires to avoid getting wet in the water, since he assumed it was water. But the waiters laughed on seeing his dress pulled up and informed him that they were solid crystal-finished floor and he could step or walk on it.

In the next hall, there were similar floors but with some lotus flowers. Duryodhana thought it could be also solid and on stepping straight away there, he fell into the water. His dress had become partially wet, but the security people had given him dried royal clothes immediately since they had stocked for the same purpose, as per the royal instructions. Later, he moved into another hall on the way but hit his forehead with the transparent solid wall since the actual open door was on another side.

Shakunai had witnessed all these events. The servants and Pandava brothers had helped them but laughed at Duryodhana when small mistakes had been committed by him and it had hurt his royal ego. These events had created jealousy towards Yudhishtira in his mind.

Why Duryodhana was not speaking to Shakuni while he was returning to his palace?

Duryodhana was feeling low and in the hangover of his humiliations felt in the Sabha hall, so he remained silent while he was returning to his palace. 

How Shakuni justified the wealth of Yudhishtira?

Shakuni justified Yudhishtira by telling to Duryodhana regarding the fruits of hard works and the efforts done united by the Pandava brothers. Arjuna had faced Chitraratha and got the bows and arrows. Sahadeva had prayed to the Fire God. Krishna had helped them to build the hall by the demon Maya.  Bhima had killed Jarasandha and Nakula had marched to the west and collected many camels. As the results of their determined actions, they had achieved their prosperity. 

How Shakuni consoled Duryodhana talking about the gains of Yudhishtira?

Shakuni had tried to console Duryodhana, by explaining the gains of Yudhishtira, as those had happened by the help of many other kings and their constant efforts.

What Duryodhana told to Shakuni to grab the wealth of Yudhishtira?

Initially, Duryodhana told Shakuni to grab the wealth of Yudhishtira, by means of fight. He would be ready to fight a war with him, in case Shakuni supported him.

What Shakuni had suggested to Duryodhana to get the wealth of Yudhishtira?

Shakuni told Duryodhana that, through a war, it would be very difficult to get the wealth of Yudhishtira. But it could be achieved through domestic but cheating methods using dice games very easily, since he was an expert in that trade.

What were the glorious items and splendid shows at Indraprastha about which Duryodhana felt jealous and reported to his father Dritarashtra?

Duryodhana felt jealous of Yudhishtira on his wealth that he received as donations. Duryodhana was in charge of receiving the donations during the Rajasuya yaga and found meager items were not at all allowed inside the royal gate as the palace was filled with costly items. He was awestruck to see the gems, jewels and movable assets received by Yudhishtira and the Indraprstha Sabha hall which were unique.

What Shakuni explained to Dritarashtra as remedies to please Duryodhana?

One dice game would be arranged in the new Sabha hall and Yudhishtira had to attend it. Since Shankuni was an expert in deceptive dice, he would help Duryodhana to procure the entire wealth of Yudhishtira. Since Duryodhana was the son of Dritarashra, he had to please him and Shakuni would help him.

What Dritarashtra had ordered to implement immediately?

Dritarashtra had ordered to build one Sabha bhavan with good splendor shows immediately.

What Dritarashtra and Duryodhana discussed secretly?

Dritarashtra consoled his son Duryodhana and advised to avoid jealous feelings about Yudhishtira. Dritarashtra told, as the emperor, he had arranged for his pleasures, with sufficient wealth, splendid palace, bed rooms, dresses, chariots, and servants. But Duryodhana could not tolerate the prosperity of Yudhishtira. The intension of Duryodhana was to get Indraprashta under his own control. This was discussed secretly by Dritarashtra and Duryodhana.   

What type of donations were received by Duryodhana on behalf of Yudhishtira in the yaga?  

On behalf of Yudhishtira in Rajassuya yaga, Duyodhana had worked to receive the gems, gold and silver, ornaments at Indrapastha.  He had also accounted movable assets received as donations such as gold decorated chariots and vessels. 

From where and why donations were not brought to Yudhishtira in yaga?

Only from two places donations were not brought to Yudhishtira in yaga. The father of Subhadra from Dwaraka had rendered services in the palace of Arjuna during the Rajasuya yaga. The father of Draupadi from Panchala had rendered services in the palace of Yudhishtira during the Rajasuya yaga. Their brothers in law from Dwaraka and Panchala also attended Indraprastha advance of a week before the start of yaga and hence could not bring any new things during yaga.

With whom Duryudhana had compared Partha and what was his own opinion?

Duryudhana had compared Partha with Indra of heaven due to jealousy.

What Dritarashtra had ordered to Vidura to please Duryodhana?

Dritarashtra had ordered Vidura to invite Yudhishtira with brothers and family to the new Sabha hall to play dice as brothers including Shakuni. 

What Vidura had done?

Vidura had moved fast and on reaching Indraprastha, invited Yudhishtira with brothers and family as per orders of Dritarashtra.

What Yudhishtira had done?

Yudhishtira had obeyed the orders of Dritarashtra and travelled with his brothers and wife, Draupadi to Hastinapura. 

What Pandavas and their family had done on reaching the palace of Hastinapura?

On reaching the palace of Hastinapura, the Pandavas had greeted all their relatives. They greeted Drona, Bhishma and Kripacharya and took good food and slept comfortably that night.

How was the Sabha of Duryodhana when Pandavas entered for Dyuta?

The Sabha of Duryodhana was glorious and many kings had been gathered there to see the dice game. The elders were provided higher seats and ladies were housed at appropriate balcony seats. The dice game was arranged in the center of the hall and Shakuni was controlling it. Dice is called as Dyuta in Sanskrit.

Representative image of Dyuta - a board game of dice, similar to Ludo
Representative image of Dyuta – a board game of dice
What had been discussed by Shakuni?

Shakuni had been discussing about the assurances and the terms and conditions before the start of the dice. 

What had been told by Yudhishtira before the start of the game dice?

Yudhishtira had told it was not proper for a person to allow another person on his behalf. But he had agreed to play the dice by Shakuni on behalf of Duryodhana. 

Who had won in the first round of dice game?

Shakuni on behalf of Duryodhana had won the first round of dice game. 

What were the assurances and wealth lost by Yudhishtira one by one in sequence?

The assurances and wealth lost by Yudhishtira, one by one in sequence are listed below:

  1. One hundred sacks filled with thousand huge gold coins.
  2. The royal chariot with its eight horses.
  3. One thousand royal elephants decorated with gold plated name boards.
  4. One hundred contract labors’ ladies team fully decorated with gold bangles.
  5. One hundred contract labors’ gents’ team fully capable of working with strength.
  6. One thousand chariots along with golden flag posts equipped with charioteers.
  7. Special gold colored Chitraratha chariot along with automatic flying horses.
  8. The military soldiers with chariots, cows and animals kept for their maintenance. 
  9. Four hundred lockers made of copper and iron full of golden deposits. 
What was the opinion of Vidura?

The dice game started initially to play six rounds only. But later when Shakuni went on winning the rounds, it had crossed the ninth round. Hence Vidura had reminded the king regarding the crossing of agreed limits.

What Vidura had told to the dice players?

Vidura had advised the dice players to try to stop the game.

What Duryodhana replied to Vidura?

Duryodhana wanted to continue and hence disliked the reminder of Vidura.

What were the dice assurances lost by Yudhishtira after Vidura had protested?

After Vidura had protested, the assurances and wealth lost by Yudhishtira one by one in sequence are listed below:

  1. The entire wealth under Yudhishtira’s custody.
  2. All movable assets, mainly the milky cows and all royal horses and all labors.
  3. The palace assets, the lands within Indraprastha and within his territory. 
  4. All the ornaments and attires worn by Yudhishtira and his brothers.  
  5. Nakula.
  6. Sahadeva.
  7. Arjuna.
  8. Bhima.
  9. Yudhishtira himself

Finally Shakuni reminded regarding Panchali or Draupadi to offer in dice.

What Vidura had done then?

Vidura had disliked the dice game and reminded the King to avoid the havoc. 

How had the audience responded?

After the ninth round but before offering Draupadi as assurance, Duryodhana had flattered about Draupadi as she was under custody of Yudhishtira. But Yudhishtira had lost his own freedom in the ninth round itself and then audience had lowered their heads with humility.

How the important persons had responded then?

Nobody had responded when Yudhishtira had lost Draupadi in the final round of dice play. But Karna, Duryodhana, Dushasana and Shakuni felt happy. 

What Duryodhana had ordered to Vidura?

Duryodhana had ordered Vidura to invite Draupadi to the Sabha hall.

What Vidura had replied to Duryodana?

Vidura had denied inviting Draupadi to the Sabha hall.

Whom Duryodhana had ordered to call Draupadi When Vidura didn’t move?

Duryodhana had ordered to Pratikami, a servant to invite Draupadi to the Sabha hall, when Vidura had denied doing so.

What Draupadi replied?

Draupadi replied she was in homely dress and not prepared to appear in the royal meeting hall. She was not neat and clean then and could not come to the hall. 

Whom Duryodhana had ordered to call Draupadi finally?

Duryodhana had ordered Dushasana, his brother to invite Draupadi to the Sabha hall, when Pratikami had failed doing so.

What Draupadi had asked when forced to appear in the Duryodhana Sabha?

Draupadi had asked the question about her husband’s failure and thereafter gaining her in dice was justifiable or not before the audience, in the Sabha hall when Bhishma, in the front row and Vikarna in the back row, were sitting. As Yudhishtira had initially lost the dice game, and lost his freedom, whether he had the right to continue and offer his wife as the next one assurance for the game was the question.   

How Draupadi was treated by the various audiences in the Duryodhana Sabha?

Dushasana had pulled Draupadi into the Sabha hall by holding her untied hairs. She protested and told she was not properly dressed and unfit to appear before the dignitaries in the Sabha hall.  But in order to uphold the dignity of the legal status of the royal meeting hall, the youngest of Kauravas , Vikarna had announced the dice played after losing his freedom by Yudhishtira was not proper and hence Droupadi was not gained by them.

Immediately, to humiliate her with Pandava brothers, Duryodana had ordered Dushasana to collect their costly attires. Then Yudhishtira with his brothers voluntarily removed their shawls and costly attires and deposited before Duryodhana.  Dushasana started to disrobe Draupadi when she cried for help with Krishna.  To the astonishment of the audiences, the cloth of Draupadi had been spontaneously coming to the hands of Dushasana for a long time, tired and under fatigue he sat on the ground near the heap of cloths already pulled by him. No doubt Krishna had helped Draupadi and her cloths were intact.  

यदा तु वाससां राशिः सभामध्ये समाचितः ।

ततो दुःशासनः श्रांतो व्रीडितः समुपाविशत् ॥

Meaning: Then in the middle of the conference hall the pulled dress was heaped, and Dushasana was tired of pulling and sat down by fatigue. 

What had been done by Pandava brothers when Duryodhana ordered to surrender their valuable ornaments and attires?

Pandava brothers had voluntarily removed their shawls, costly royal attires and deposited them before Duryodhana.

What Vikarna had answered against the question of Draupadi?

Vikarna had told, Duryodhana had not gained Draupadi since the dice had been played after he lost his freedom. He announced dice as a bad game.

How Vidura had supported Vikarna?

Vidura had condemned dice as a bad game and thus supported Vikarna.

What the audience had applauded in favour of Draupadi?

The audiences had condemned the actions of Duryodhana, and applauded in favour of Draupadi saying Duryodhana had not gained her.

How Vidura controlled the audience?

Vidura requested to answer the questions of Draupadi.

 What Bhima told in the audience?

Bhima told, he would put fire into the hands of Yudhishtira. But Arjuna pacified him.

How Bhima was consoled?

Arjuna told him to control anger.

What Duryodhana exhibited?

Duryodhana exhibited his left thigh with ego.

How Bhima responded?

Bhima told he would smash and powder the thigh of Duryodhana with his mace.

What Vidura had repeatedly requested in the audience?

Vidura was repeatedly requesting the audience to answer the question of Draupadi.

What Vidura and Gandhari told to Dritarashtra about their palace?

Vidura and Gandhari told to Dritarashtra about bad omens in their palace. 

What Dritarashtra told to Draupadi?

Dritarashtra consoled Draupadi telling her as she was a good daughter-in-law to him and she could get a boon of her desire from him.

What was the boon asked by Draupadi?

Draupadi had asked Dritarashtra if he would be pleased to give a boon, then he could let Yudhishtira free of bondage.

Why Dritarashtra told Draupadi to seek a second boon?

Dritarashtra was afraid of adverse consequences due to dice game. In order to console Draupadi and to please her, he offered her a second boon. 

What was the second boon asked by Draupadi?

Draupadi had asked Dritarashtra if he would be pleased to give a second boon then he could let Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva free of bondage and allow them to take chariots and weapons with them. 

Why Draupadi denied the third boon from Dritarashtra?

Draupadi had denied the third boon to make public of her eligibilities.

What were the advices given to Yudhishtira by Dritarashtra?

Dritarashtra was getting aged and he was blind. He was losing confidence in his son, so he advised Yudhishtira to treat Duryodhana and all brothers, friendly.

What Dritarashtra expected from Yudhishtira?

Dritarashtra expected from Yudhishtira friendly treatments.

What had been done by Yudhishtira after completion of first round of dice game?

Yudhishtira had moved to Indraprastha accompanying his brothers and Draupadi with weapons using their chariots.

What Dushasana had reported to Duryodhana after Yudhishtira and brothers started to Indraprastha?

Dushasana had reported to Duryodhana after Yudhishtira and Pandava brothers started to Indraprastha, as Dritarashtra, the old man, had foiled their tasks, by allowing them to enjoy their palaces as kings.

Why Duryodhana demanded from Dritarashtra permission for Anudyuta?

Duryodhana wanted to drive away Yudhishtira, his brothers and Draupadi from Indraprastha palace after declaring them as they lost in dice. Hence he planned for Anudyuta with Shakuni and beseeched permission from Dritarashtra for it.

What Gandhari, Bhishma and others told to Dritarashtra?

Gandhari, Bhishma and others told to Dritarashtra that another dice play was not good.

Why the people were silent about the dice play by the Pandavas and Kauravas?

There was no violence in playing a dice, and played within brothers. People were not interested in their play, hence kept silent.

What were the terms and conditions of the second time Anudyuta?

The second time Anudyuta was planned by Dryodhana and Shakuni only for cheating Yudhishtira and make them deprived of their Palace and country. Hence they formulated the terms and conditions as:
In case if Yudhishtira lost in the dice play, he should go in exile for twelve years and live thirteenth year in hiding as unknown and untraceable. Further, if they were recognized by anybody, then they should go in exile for another term of twelve years and one more year at its end to spend as untraceable period .  

What was the result of Anudyuta?

Duryodhana had got victory in the dice game.

How Duryodhana made fun of Bhima?

Duryodhana made fun of Bhima by calling him as ‘Cow! Cow! ’

What was the vow taken by Bhima against Duryodhana and Dushasana?

Bhima had taken vows to crush the thigh of Duryodhana and to break the chest of Dushasana and drink his blood in the next forth coming war. 

What was the vow taken by Arjuna ?

Arjuna had taken a vow to kill Karna in the next forth coming war.

What was the vow taken by Sahadeva ?

Sahadeva had taken a vow to kill Shakuni in the next forth coming war.

What was the vow taken by Draupadi?

Draupadi had taken a vow not to tie her hairs till Dushasana was killed in the next forth coming war and his intestines be pulled out and to use to tie her hairs in decoration.

What Vidura expected with Pandavas and Kunti?

Vidura told them Kunti would be living in his house safely.

What Kunti had told to her children and daughter in law?
Kunti had told to her children to live as brothers always and to the daughter in law, Draupadi to treat them appropriately with family affections.
What Dritarashtra had done?

Dritarashtra had called for Vidura as he felt sorry for the happenings.

What Drona had told to Duryodhana?

Drona advised Duryodhana to make compromises with Yudhishtira.

What Dritarashtra told to Sanjaya?

Dritarashtra ordered Sanjaya to invite Yudhishtira back to his palace and in case if he would not return, he should be honored and pleased with donations.

On reading this story, children would gain more memory power.

Next post, Mahabharat: Aranya parva would be more interesting.

Mahabharat: Kirmiravadha would be presented separately in another article.

It is humbly prayed for the blessings of God Krishna upon us.

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