Jagarana Parva, also named as Prajagara parva, is the fifty first upa parva included in the fifth Maha parva named as Udgyoga parva, in the epic Mahabharata. The main purpose of this parva is to disclose the advices of Vidura to Dritarashtra and thereby to insist his son, Duryodhana to return back the legitimate, movable assets and immovable parental properties of Yudhishtira to him.

What was the result of Sanjaya yana on Dritarashtra?

The result of the arrival of Sanjaya to the palace of Dritarashtra had aroused curiosity in him and caused to suffer by the restlessness. In that curiosity, to know more about the replies of the Pandava brothers who were temporarily camping at Upaplava under the kingdom of Matsya, Dritarashtra started guessing.

In addition to the pre-occupations of Dritarashtra, Sanjaya had already told him, hinting, his negligence was the main reason for the sufferings of the Pandava brothers. Then, it was too late, and since he was tired of travelling, he said he would be disclosing it on the next day in the court hall where Duryodhana, his son, had played the dice game cheating Yudhishtira.   

Vidura and Dhritarashtra having a late night conversation
Vidura and Dhritarashtra having a discussion in the late night
Why Vidura was summoned by Dritarashtra in the late night ?

Dritarashtra summoned Vidura in the late night, when he tried to sleep but could not get comfortable sleep, due to sufferings by sleeplessness. Vidura was his younger brother, and used to assist him in all the legal matters related to the royal administrations. The morality, ethics and justice practiced by Vidura was exemplary and hence, in order to pass time on that night, Dritarashtra thought to consult Vidura as a remedy for his sleeplessness.

Dritarashtra thought, his son Duryodhana had committed some injustice towards Yudhishtira by grabbing his wealth and Indraprastha land. Only to spend time on that night, Dritarashtra asked various doubtful questions to Vidura. 

What are the symptoms of a scholar?

Dritarashtra thought his son Duryodhana was not a wise prince, and so he wanted to know about the features of a scholar. Vidura described the symptoms of a good person, having the best scholarship characters.

One should be able to protect others to be a king or to rule others and he should follow justice in his actions. In case if he feels his knowledge of justice is insufficient, then he is free to consult his father or any senior citizens who had good experience in life and suffered. He should keep a defensive force with him but he should love non-violence. He should honour another scholar and those persons should be possessing good characters, agreed by the common people. He should be a learned man and received the blessings of his teacher. He must be a man of truthfulness.

Vidura knew, Karna got his military higher education by telling lies to his teacher, Parashurama but later his teacher pardoned him and taught him. Duryodhana was depending on the scholarship of Karna but Vidura advised Dritarashtra, the military capacity of Karna was not reliable. Vidura explained him, the Pandava brothers were scholars and their unity lay on their truthfulness, and support in non-violence. The people in the public desire peace, not war and so Vidura declared finally that Sanatkumara is the best scholar and suggested his name for further consultations.

Who is a stupid man?

A stupid man is that person who thinks himself as the wisest one, but in the society some people know about some items or specializations only. No man’s knowledge would be fully correct on all matters. Who disobeys his parents is a stupid one. If a man insults any ladies, then he should be considered as a stupid. Playing dice game shows him as the stupidest. Vidura says Duryodhana was a stupid one.    

Why Vidura advised penal codes in the late night to Dritarashtra?

Vidura had advised penal codes on that night to Dritarashtra, even though it was very late. Vidura was answering to the questions of Dritarashtra. Indraparstha and half of the kingdom legally belonged to Yudhishtira but due to his soft nature, he had lived in forests for twelve years and in the thirteenth year, lived in Matsya incognito with his brothers and wife. The essence of his detailed theory of penal codes were summarized in allowing the land for Yudhishtira to live as a king, with his brothers accepting them as paternal assets inheritance. Duryodhana should avoid war.

What is Vidura Neeti?

Vidura Neeti is the speech addressed by Vidura, containing the penal code systems and customs practiced in the time of Mahabharat era. There was no unemployment in those days. Taxation was there. People were engaged in their duties and usually they learnt the skills for work from their parents or teachers. The four Varna systems were present in the society. 

The teachers or the people engaged in providing medical aids were not eligible for land ownerships. They were allowed to live in forests and sometimes they had assumed such large forest areas that were reserved for education of students. Teachers and students were allowed to live by begging or by looking after cattle near river banks. They were allowed to travel anywhere in the kingdom without security checking but they were not eligible to carry weapons with them. All such group of persons responsible for the teaching duties was grouped as Brahmana varna people, but financially they were very poor.

The administrative matters were learned by the children of kings and then the teachers were Rishis and the learning location was the residences of the teachers. Taxation was exempted for teachers and only after completion of education, fees was paid by the parents of students. The fees were the source of income for teachers. Teachers were attending wedding or festival functions as priests, and for their priest hood, proper fees along with cattle or gold coins were paid. The territory included the forests in the peripheries and included rivers which were looked after by the kings with their military establishments. All the persons responsible for the administrative duties, were grouped as Kshatriya varna people.

The Gold or silver coins were in use as legal tenders. These were honored by its purity and weight. The movable assets were purchased and sold tendering the gold or silver coins. There were no limits for the gold or silver coins to be kept in stock, but the custodian should remit the prescribed tax to the treasury of the king. All the persons responsible for the business marketing duties, were grouped as Vaishya varna people.  

For travelling to any long distance towns, chariot services were available. For crossing rivers, boat services were available. Large crematoriums were also available in all towns containing palaces and play grounds but in rural areas, the funeral related servants were attending from towns to villages, as the death rates were seldom in villages. The construction engineers were designated as Vishwakarma people and their services were mandatory for Kshatriya varna and Vaishya varna people. They were considered as the masters of all other service providers. In Sanskrit, Vishva means universal and Karma means services. The people controlling the business of marketing of horses were designated as Sutas and they were the most luxurious people in the society. Thus Karna was called as Suta putra, means the son of a suta. He possessed the highest wealth and movable properties. The service providers were always rich and in good health. In almost all Puranas, they are referred as Sutas since they were the frequent visitors of Rishis and due to their contributions only, Rishis were able to get some small cash in the form of Dakshina. All the persons, responsible for the various services providing duties, were grouped as Suta varna people.  

What is meant by Pramada in Sanskrit? 

In Sanskrit, Pramada means mistake. By the negligence in actions or thought, mistakes happen but the result would be pain-giving if sufficient carefulness is not practiced. Mistakes happen due to ego or by lack of knowledge also. Sometimes, egoistic persons purposefully do mistakes for their temporary benefits also. Duryodhana had played dice games but he avoided his personal actions and uncle Shakuni acted for his sake and cheated Yudhishtira to grab the wealth and Indraprastha.  All such incidences were quoted as examples by Vidura. In order to pass time, Vidura told many stories also. 

Who was the father of Sukeshini? 

Matali was the charioteer of Indra of Heaven and he was the father of Sukeshini. Sukeshini had got education and then Matali started to search for a bridegroom. In the heaven, all angels were committing one or the other mistakes and Sukeshini had rejected them all. Sudhanva was the son of Brahma and Virochana was the son of Prahlada. Matali instructed Sukeshini to find out their ranks, the better person out of these two.

Hence, Sukeshini approached them directly, and asked them individually and separately, as who was eligible for the higher rank of respect between them. Truthfulness was the desired quality for anybody, so she told them to show their ranks on the next day morning in front of Prahlada, the father of Virochana. Both of them agreed and on the following day, the duo met together and boasted themselves as eligible for higher ranks. Finally, they decided to visit Prahlada together with some terms and conditions.

Virochana was very rich, possessing many gold and land assets, then demon prince, being the son of Prahlada. Sudhanva was very poor but possessing many items of knowledge and his school was very large with many students, being the son of Brahma. Both of them were living in this world and some terms and conditions that should be selected as a common item for them. Since life was a common item for anybody, it was selected as to sacrifice their life if lower in rank.  Then they appeared in front of Prahlada in the morning. 

Then Prahlada should act, and pronounce the judgment between them and in order to see it, Sukeshini also presented herself there without their knowledge.

How Prahlada showed his sincerity towards truthfulness?

Sudhanva was the son of Brahma and Virochana was the son of Prahlada. When both of them approached together, Prahlada was very happy to receive them both and expressed wonder to see his son with the son of Brahma as friends. They expressed their terms and conditions and requested together to declare their ranks. After the opinion of Prahlada, the lower in rank should be ready to give his life to sacrifice. Prahlada started thinking. Then truthfulness was the desired quality of anybody. He ordered his son Virochana to worship the feet of Sudhanva.

After worshipping the feet of Sudhanva by Virochana, Prahlada had declared, Virochana may stand waiting with his father and Sudhanva may sit on the wooden plank placed on the lower ground. After Sudhanva sat on the wooden plank placed on the ground, Sudhanva had requested them to sit on the golden throne. Then both the father and son prostrated Sudhanva first, and next, both of them, Prahlada and Virochana had sat together on the golden throne.  

Then Sudhanva had blessed them both. He loudly felicitated: Aayushmaan Bhava

आयुश्मान् भव

Meaning: Let the life period may be prolonged. 

Sudhanva, being the son of Brahma, the words uttered by his mouth would be true.

As per the terms and conditions, the rank of Virochana was lower and the rank of Sudhanva was higher and proved. Then Virochana should sacrifice his life. Immediately, Sukeshini appeared there and interrupted telling Prahlada showed his sincerity towards truthfulness, and the value of truth is the highest. The golden throne and the wooden plank had nothing to do but the life would be the most valuable to anybody. She requested them not to sacrifice life and continue to live as friends and she returned to heaven and reported everything to her father, Matali.  Sukeshini had rejected both of them, and again, her father started searching a new bridegroom for her.     

Who is the husband of Sukeshini? 

Narada Rishi appeared there to help Matali. Both of them visited Hell, the Patala loka and found a handsome young man and opined as suitable for Sukeshini, but the future life period of him to be verified then. His name was Sumukha and he belonged to Naga lineage and was the relative of Vasuki. Both of them worshipped Vishnu and Vishnu was pleased, hence providing a few drops of Amrit (nectar) to Sumukha and he had been later elevated to heaven. So Sumukha had become the husband of Sukeshini. They are living as angels, without committing any mistakes.

How Vidura explained about successful life?
यतोधर्मस्ततो जय​: ॥ 

Vidura advised Dritarashtra to follow Dharma. 

Meaning: Success depends on the performance of Dharma.

सत्येन रक्षते धर्मो विद्या योगेन रक्षते ।

मृजया रक्षते रूपं कुलं वृत्तेन रक्षते ॥

Meaning: Dharma is protected by Truth. Yoga means combinations of many actions. By yoga, the education received is protected, the beauty of face or appearance is protected by washing and the lineage is protected by good character and good conduct of the person, of that family.

What is the side story of Dattatreya and Sadhya?

Dattatreya and Sadhya were ancient Rishis. One hunter, after spreading his net to capture birds, had hid himself and waited. Two birds entered the net and started to eat the grains under the net. When the hunter came there to capture those birds, they had united together and pulling the whole net, started flying in the sky. The hunter also started running, following their route. The Rishis in the forests witnessed his running. After some time, while flying, the birds started quarrelling with one other and fell on the ground along with the net. The hunter also reached there. He killed the two birds and ate them in the evening after cooking.  This story was discussed originally by Dattatreya and Sadhya, and Vidura repeated this story to illustrate Dritarashtra about unity within the family. 

How the forests and tigers live in nature according to Vidura?

The cruel animals should protect the forests. The forests should protect the cruel animals like tigers and lions. Vidura told mutual cooperation is desired for survival in the nature. 

Why Vidura invited Sanatsujatha near Dritarashtra in the night?

Even after telling many items of morals and ethics, Dritarashtra could not sleep in the late night. Before dawn, on the late night, he invited Sanatsujata near Dritarashtra to elaborate about death and rebirth of souls of this world.

Next post, Mahabharat: Sanatsujatha Parva would be more interesting.

Mahabharat: Yanasandhi Parva would be presented separately in another article.

On reading this story, children would gain more memory power, great moral strength in their life in future; create a sense of self- reliance leading to peace and progress.

It is humbly prayed for the blessings of God Krishna upon us. 

Readers may share this story with children, friends and family.

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