Sanathsujatha Parva is the fifty second upa parva included in the fifth Maha parva named as Udyoga parva in the epic Mahabharata. The main purpose of this Parva is to confirm the implied essence of Sanatana Dharma and to publish the same before king Dritarashtra.

After telling about the Viduraneeti or legalities on ethics and penal codes, Vidura had invited a boy, Sanatkumara, son of Brahma, to explain regarding the details about death and life to Dritarashtra in the later part of the night.

Who was Sanatsujatha?

Sanatsujatha was one of the sons of Brahma, a boy aged about eight years. Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumara and Sanatsujatha were the four sons who were known as young Rishis who possessed full knowledge of Adhyatma Vijnana. This Adhyatma Vijnana is nothing but Sanatana Dharma.

Sanathsujatha Rishi explaining things to Dritarashtra
Sanathsujatha Rishi explaining things to Dritarashtra
What are the Upakhyanas?

Upakhyanas are the side stories. These side stories were told by various Rishis and scholars to Pandavas or some associated characters of Mahabharata, and repeated by Vaishampayana to Janamejaya. These side stories are ancient incidences referred to bring more clarity and understanding about the advices implied in the narration by the orator to the listener.

More than twenty seven Upakhyanas are now available in the Mahabharata but there may be still more, some of them being lost in due course of time. There may be morals inside the side stories. Examples are like Astika Parva and Syamantakopakhyana.

What is the moral of Astika Parva?

The main moral of Astika parva is non-violence. Please refer to the article Astika Parva published previously in this website to know more about it.

What is the main objective of Syamantakopakhyana?

The main objective of Syamanthaka Upakhyana or Syamantakopakhyana is Ganesha Bhakti and avoiding punishing of innocent people in the society against false allegations without enquiries and confirmations. The most brilliant, glittering diamond is the Syamantaka diamond and Krishna is the hero for this side story. In this website, in the Draupadi Satyabhama episode, in the third maha parva and its thirty eighth upa parva, the story of Syamanthaka is available and readers are requested to browse for the same.

One should be worshipping Ganesha on the evening of Bhadrapada masa, Shukla paksha, fourth tithi, inside any mandir or own house, and not enjoy by sighting the crescent moon for the passing of time. Processions if any may be attended after the moon sets in the West, only on that day of Ganesh Chaturthi evening, to avoid the sky scenery. One must sit before Ganesha and worship him. In case anybody happens to see the Moon on the sky due to any kind of mistakes, they may face some false allegations later, but if they read the story of Syamanthaka gem, Krishna’s story about this diamond, they would get rid of that sin, which acts as a remedy. It is the side story part of Mahabharata. 

How Sanatsujatha explained to Dritarashtra regarding death and Vedas?

Sanatsujatha or Sanatsujathiya is a separate upa parva in Mahabharata and it is a side story full of principles of Sanatana dharma. The boy told this to Dritarashtra to clarify his doubts against his various questions.

According to Sanatsujatha, how to overcome the fear?

Fear comes from an external object and that can be well studied in advance to overcome the adverse effects. Fear can be avoided easily. Dritarashtra was afraid of the death of his son Duryodhana, an arrogant one. Vidura advised him to promote the brotherhood, maintaining good relationship between Duryodhana and the Pandava brothers in order to avoid war or quarrelling. Vidura instructed to return the legitimate belongings to Yudhishtira and live in peace to avoid the fear of death, but Dritarashtra wanted more clarity and hence Sanatkumara was invited as the specialist in that subject.   

Who knows all the Vedas?
न वेदानां वेदिता कश्चिदस्ति कश्चिद्वेदान् बुध्यते राजन् ।
यो वेद वेदान्न स वेद वेद्यं सत्ये स्थितो यस्तु स वेद वेद्यं ॥

Meaning: There is nobody in this world who knew all about Vedas. A few people could explain some words of Vedas according to their acquired experiences. Even though some people do not know anything about Vedas but live with devotion to truth, they would be able to explain about Vedas. Thus Sanatkumara had explained to Dritarashtra. Therefore truthfulness is mandatory and essential to know Vedas.

What is the benefit of studying Vedas in this life?

The main benefit of studying Vedas is, maintenance of non-violence and truthfulness.  

Whether the study of Vedas could help anybody to avoid death?

Study of Vedas could never avoid death. Vedas are teachings, declaring there is no death for the soul of any life, but death is just changing a scrapped body and procuring another new body, and the cycle of such phenomena is called as rebirth. The selection of the new body for the soul depends on the credits of Papa or Punya accumulated in the previous life periods.

By the study of Vedas, people would minimize papa (sins) and promote the accumulation of punya (virtues). Since Dritarashtra had pierced the eyes of hundred young ones of swan (cygnets) in the previous life as a cruel prince, at present he had born as blind and the old blind cygnets had born as his hundred children. This incidence is already published in this website as Sambhava parva, and readers may browse for the same.

Who is the best and greatest Muni?
मौनाद्धि स मुनिर्भवति नारण्यवसनान्मुनिः ।
अक्षरं तत्तु यो वेद स मुनिः श्रेष्ठ उच्यते ॥ॐ ॥

Meaning: He who prefers to live by preferring silence is called as a Muni, but not a man who dwells in the forest. One who knows about the non-destructive prowess of the single letter ‘OM’, he is the greatest one and he is the best Muni.  

How to live under a Gurukula system and what are the benefits?

A Gurukula is like a University and supervised by a learned Rishi. The family of the Rishi would be providing food, clothing and shelter to all the students pursuing education under him and the financial management would be the responsibility of the parents of the children. The students would get the benefits of apprenticeships during learning; he may enter into real life after completion of his basic learning. Later he may pursue higher studies, acquire more skill in his field of his choice, from the same Guru or go in search of an expert Guru. There he would get the benefits of internship. In the article, benefits of apprenticeships and internships, under this website, more details are available.

How Sanatsujatha explained about God and how a yogi could visualize it?
पूर्णात्पूर्णान्युद्धरन्ति पूर्णात्पूर्णानि चक्रिरे ।
हरन्ति पूर्णात्पूर्णानि पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ।
योगिनस्तं प्रपश्यन्ति भगवन्तं सनातनम् ॥

Meaning: Due to the saturated God or Knowledge, life gets integrated. The same saturated one, creates the other saturated beings.  When anything is deducted from infinity, the same infinity remains forever. Thus the Yogis are always visualizing the God as Sanatana as well as perfectly saturated or infinity. In the real sense, the one who knows God later becomes God, since his soul with that wisdom spontaneously elevates him.  

What is the main message of Sanatsujata?

The main message of Sanatsujata was more about rebirth, after death. He had described about death as, it is not spontaneous, but it follows any one mistake. Parakayapravesha is special words in Sanatana Dharma where one could get into the body of another person or animal’s body, but the former body should be preserved in good condition until the soul re-enters it. But such practices should not be contradictory to Sanatana Dharma; death means a transfer of the soul in this world. The soul is eternal and one must do virtuous works always, till death.

Which is the verse, a common line, repeated by Sanatsujata several times?
Answer: योगिनस्तं प्रपश्यंति भगवंतं सनातनं ॥

Meaning: The soul of a person or a living being is a part of the Universal God. Yogis are visualizing that energy as Sanatana and the same is called as God, and Sanatkumara repeatedly told the above Sanskrit line, in the end of several stanzas, the very same line is told in ending several Shlokas.  

Finally what happened when Vidura, Sanatsujata were talking to Dritarashtra? 

The entire night had passed with the meeting and discussing of the trio and it was in the morning, they had started for the royal court session and to hear Sanjaya. Sanatsujata disappeared away. Vidura returned to his home, to come back prepared for his duties in the court session before king Dritarashtra.

What are Upanishads?

Upanishads are philosophical poems quoted at the end of Vedas. There are more than one hundred and eight (108) minor Upanishads in Mahabharata, most of them are told in this Upa parva; Vyasa had narrated them. Some discussions are not named here that come across in different Vedas with different names. A few of them are Aithareya, Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya, Dattatreya and Ekakshara Upanishads. 

What is Aithareya Upanishad?

Aithareya Upanishad mentions, the life requires different items and not only the soul or body is sufficient in this world. Within the body, life has its own bindings, by the senses but the universal energy is free to create many other items. 

What is Brihadaranyaka Upanishad?

In the big forests, Rishis lived with maximum freedom. They composed the end parts of the Vedas as they received the knowledge from God but later most of such Rishis abridged them and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad has become patent-less. It could not be claimed as told by a single Rishi of any one forest. So it is the result of many years, many Rishis, of different forests, generally belonging to a biggest forest, universal and divine.   

What is Chandogya Upanishad?

Chandas means meter, the style of assembling the Sanskrit words in the Vedic hymns. All about such important grammar items are grouped to explain about soul, God, Veda and rebirth in these chapters. Hence it is named as Chandogya Upanishad. 

What is Dattatreya Upanishad?

Dattatreya Upanishad explains how a three-faced Rishi would be having a single soul and God can take birth as a person on Earth. First of all, it starts with a side story and later ends in Upanishad. Most of the facts are related to devotion to God and as the result, God could become a child with name Dattatreya. 

What is Ekakshara Upanishad?
ॐ इति एकाक्षरं ब्रह्म ।

Meaning: The one letter OM is the representation of Brahma. 

The soul of the life is represented by the one letter Om and it is never changing in this Universe. That is God. Life is the part of it but it is arrested within the living body, with the senses and by mapping control mechanism. As one works, the sins or the virtues keeps on accumulating to the account of the soul and in the next birth, the yoga or combination of the different planets show the balance of them. 

What is Narayana Upanishad?

Narayana Sukta is a vedic poem. Narayana Upanishad explains more about Narayana Sukta. Outside the body as well as inside the self, Narayana exists. 

What is Sharabha Upanishad?

Sharabha is a special kind of animal, having paws like a lion but more powerful. Later, God Vishnu got his holy wheel from Sharabha. This is also a combination of Upakhyana and Upanishad.

Can Upakhaya and Upanishad be compared?

Yes. Upakhyana is a side story. Upanishad is the hidden moral in the narration.

Next post, Mahabharat: Yanasandhi Parva would be more interesting.

Mahabharat: Bhagavat-yana Parva would be presented separately in another article.

What are the benefits of reading this story?

On reading this story, children would gain more memory power, great moral strength in their future life; create a sense of self-reliance leading to peace and progress. 

It is humbly prayed for the blessings of God Krishna upon us.

Readers may share this story with children, friends and family.

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